1 دکتری باستاشناسی
2 ریاست پژوهشگاه میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری
3 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد باستان شناسی دانشگاه تهران
4 دانش آموخته دکترا باستان شناسی دانشگاه مازندران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Environmental factors such as climate, slope, and etc. have played a determining role in all aspects of ancient human life. The significance of each of these factors can be from one hand, due to the severity of the effects of the agents and on the other hand, due to a specific type of the subsistence. This research examined the role of environmental factors in the spatial formation and distribution of human settlements in the Iron Age in Horand region. For this purpose,96 sites that included Iron Age materials were studied with the approach of determining settlement patterns based on the environmental variables. In this research, using descriptive-analytical method and inferential statistics including cluster analysis as well as using SPSS and ArcGIS software, the distribution of the Iron Age´s sites to the natural variables was investigated. Results of the statistical analyses showed that the Hourand's Iron Age sites can be divided into three groups of A,B,C according to the cluster analysis studies. The first cluster (56% of the sites), which formed the largest group, covered an area of 0.6 hectares at an altitude of 1,374 meters above sea level, a distance of 647 meters from the river, and 1853 meters from the communication paths. The second cluster (38% of the sites) included the sites with an average area of 4.4 hectares, an altitude of 1049 meters above sea level, a distance of 1171 meters from the river and 2064 meters from communication paths. Finally, the last cluster (6% of the sites) with the lowest number of area, consisted of 23 hectares with an average altitude of 1008 meters above sea level, 1242 meters from the river, and 2441 meters from the communication paths. The location of the settlements indicated that the formation of these sites was influenced by the environmental variables