عنوان مقاله [English]
Geomorphology, both as a discipline of natural science and as a branch of geography and natural geography, has always been influenced by the historical developments of science, and especially the developments in the history of geography, and exclusively by natural geology and geology. Contemporary methodological perspectives in geography and natural geography were mainly founded by Hatton, Hartschon, Saur, and others, followed by other geographers and expanded. Major issues related to methodology in geomorphology include key methodologies, practical requirements for methodology for generating scientific knowledge and how to preserve the integrity and consistency of geography from a methodological point of view. The emergence of scientific knowledge is related to ontology, epistemology, methodology (as the tendencies of the philosophy of science), and the method of scientific research. Based on each of the schools and cognitive approaches (positivism, pragmatism, interpretation, constructivism and criticism, methodology, and specific research methods). In relation to the methodology in geomorphology, there are three aspects to consider: Kaplan's (1964) view of the independence of science, the methodological traditions of Lakatos and the new view of pragmatism. The geomorphology is developed and found through a linguistic process. The approach of positivism and tradition is a bit of a fundamental and common approach to geomorphology. Nevertheless, in addition, the views of elitism and academic independence can not be ignored by scholarly differentiation and skepticism and pragmatism. Evidence of these approaches and their acceptance, and it seems that aspects of the movement towards pragmatism are remarkable and undeniable in geomorphology.